November 03, 2002
Adolescent Mice More Sensitive To Addictive Drugs

It seems likely that the same holds true for humans as well:

Researchers at Jefferson Medical College have evidence in animals that the young, adolescent brain may be more sensitive to addictive drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines than either the adult or newborn. The work may help someday lead to a better understanding of how the adolescent human brain adapts to such drugs, and provide clues into changes in the brain that occur during drug addiction.

Scientists led by Michelle Ehrlich, M.D., professor of neurology at Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia and a member of the Farber Institute for Neurosciences at Jefferson, and Ellen Unterwald, Ph.D., associate professor of pharmacology at the Temple University School of Medicine in Philadelphia, found a greater increase in a certain protein in the part of the adolescent mouse brain called the striatum following chronic exposure to drugs such as amphetamine or cocaine than they did in either very young mice or adults.

Such psychostimulant drugs affect the brain’s striatum in different ways, potentially affecting both movement and locomotion, or the “reward” system. This “molecular adaptation,” says Dr. Ehrlich, could be significant. “An increase in this protein may be important because it could also affect other molecules that could lead to long-lasting changes in the brain in response to psychostimulant drugs.” The protein, called Delta FosB, is a transcription factor and plays a role in regulating gene expression. Earlier research by other scientists had shown increased amounts of Delta FosB in adult brains following chronic exposure to psychostimulants.

The team, which includes scientists at the Nathan Kline Institute in Orangeburg, New York, reports its findings November 1 in the Journal of Neuroscience.

Share |      Randall Parker, 2002 November 03 05:31 PM  Brain Addiction

Gene M said at August 3, 2005 8:58 AM:

Hello, A bit of imput on the psychopharmacology of amphetamines and meth. Now, Can and is there a difference, and how much of a difference in any damage between say using Adderall at a regular dose, for a few years and methamphetamine more soe abuse, because anyone using meth is moresoe not just using it for ADD!. Well im just wondering the studies show brain tissue and neurodamage, I believe to the receptors themselves, Certain regions like the nucleus accumbens and reward pathway. Now here is my theory.
I know and was diagnosed with a good case of ADD> But something I believe, but never diagnosed, but I do show alot of symptoms is called Reward Dificientcy Syndrome. Now, This is not from adderall, but abusing 3 yrs 24/7 of GHB. GHB or rather GBL , pharmacology wise, When injested and crosses the BBB, Begins to hold back Dopamine, in regions at or near the Nucleus Accumbens, but somehow releases dopamine at the same time causing pleasure euphoria, but the tricky drug is that when you do a bit more and more, it shuts down Dopaminergic and then GABA Neuronal systems, and you pass out, and cannot be awoke. Your are breathing normally and o2 saturation is ok. I have experienced normal levels of bodily function while under the influence of G and passed out.
Now, I beleive this drug or chemical may have causes this, because research doesnt say about any long term damamge, but when I stopped g 3 yrs ago, I was really never the same, I was sober 1 yr, drank here and there, only not using g because I could not get it, and was in a rehab. Now, I then turned to oxycontin. Well my outcome I believe is my brain was never satisfied so to say, I tried at least 10 different meds in that time , to no avail, but not depressed bad, though listless, bored, shallowminded, would stop things and not enjoy anything. I got sick of feeling this way even after sober. So I went to an addiction doctor, because I began using opiates after the 1 yr clean, because It made me just feel ok, and useful and enjoy stuff. Well , the doctor perscribed me Suboxone, a partial opiate. It helped about 20 percent with cravings, and 100 percent for withdrawls. BUT then i still stopped taking them to use!! Oxycontins.
Now, here is the real kicker. About 2 months after, I did not tell him I used , but Said doctor, I really dont feel much better, there is something im missing, and told him about dopamine and my symptoms. He said let me give you an add test. I filled out the papers and he looked them over, and I failed flying colors, not lying at all. ADDERALL was what he gave me.
That drug changed me , FOR THE BETTER, i feel. Now, the bad thing is I stopped 3 days in a row like 3 months ago, and believe me, I didnt get out of bed, Didnt want to even walk to the bathroom. And I didnt get better but worse, then day 4, I resumed adderall. One hour after taking the 30 mg pill, I got out of bed, and started to clean, then talk to my family, then workout, and computer research, and never loooked back. to date, I always take 30mg every 6 hrs, 3x day. I sleep, 6-8 hrs, not having trouble falling asleep, but I could easily stay up 1 day. 2 if i keep taking adderall 6 hrs apart, but anyway, I lay down and go to bed usually 16 hrs to 20 hrs after I wake.
I get up, feel I need the adderall, take it, and lay down , watch tv and then 1 hr, bang , up again, even if the drug is not really working great due to tolerance.

Positive symptoms: Social activy, enjoy the little things, talk to family and im not violent, Im passive, enjoy reading, computer research , and just walking around enjoying my surroundings and mainly NO cravings At all for any other drug!. Clean like 1 yr from any drug, not one beer. But its impossible to stop taking adderall.

What does this sound like. To me, my dopaminergic reward system was messed up to begin with, adderall kicked it back in, but now, will i just make it worse.

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