March 06, 2004
UC Berkeley Engineers Develop Human Exoskeleton Prototype

University of California, Berkeley robotics researchers have demonstrated a working prototype for a strength-enhancing human exoskeleton.

"We set out to create an exoskeleton that combines a human control system with robotic muscle," said Homayoon Kazerooni, professor of mechanical engineering and director of UC Berkeley's Robotics and Human Engineering Laboratory. "We've designed this system to be ergonomic, highly maneuverable and technically robust so the wearer can walk, squat, bend and swing from side to side without noticeable reductions in agility. The human pilot can also step over and under obstructions while carrying equipment and supplies."

The Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton (BLEEX), as it's officially called, consists of mechanical metal leg braces that are connected rigidly to the user at the feet, and, in order to prevent abrasion, more compliantly elsewhere. The device includes a power unit and a backpack-like frame used to carry a large load.

Such a machine could become an invaluable tool for anyone who needs to travel long distances by foot with a heavy load. The exoskeleton could eventually be used by army medics to carry injured soldiers off a battlefield, firefighters to haul their gear up dozens of flights of stairs to put out a high-rise blaze, or rescue workers to bring in food and first-aid supplies to areas where vehicles cannot enter.

"The fundamental technology developed here can also be developed to help people with limited muscle ability to walk optimally," said Kazerooni.

The researchers point out that the human pilot does not need a joystick, button or special keyboard to "drive" the device. Rather, the machine is designed so that the pilot becomes an integral part of the exoskeleton, thus requiring no special training to use it. In the UC Berkeley experiments, the human pilot moved about a room wearing the 100-pound exoskeleton and a 70-pound backpack while feeling as if he were lugging a mere 5 pounds.

The project, funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, or DARPA, began in earnest in 2000. Next week, from March 9 through 11, Kazerooni and his research team will showcase their project at the DARPA Technical Symposium in Anaheim, Calif.

For the current model, the user steps into a pair of modified Army boots that are then attached to the exoskeleton. A pair of metal legs frames the outside of a person's legs to facilitate ease of movement. The wearer then dons the exoskeleton's vest that is attached to the backpack frame and engine. If the machine runs out of fuel, the exoskeleton legs can be easily removed so that the device converts to a large backpack.

More than 40 sensors and hydraulic actuators form a local area network (LAN) for the exoskeleton and function much like a human nervous system. The sensors, including some that are embedded within the shoe pads, are constantly providing the central computer brain information so that it can adjust the load based upon what the human is doing. When it is turned on, the exoskeleton is constantly calculating what it needs to do to distribute the weight so little to no load is imposed on the wearer.


One significant challenge for the researchers was to design a fuel-based power source and actuation system that would provide the energy needed for a long mission. The UC Berkeley researchers are using an engine that delivers hydraulic power for locomotion and electrical power for the computer. The engine provides the requisite energy needed to power the exoskeleton while affording the ease of refueling in the field.

The current prototype allows a person to travel over flat terrain and slopes, but work on the exoskeleton is ongoing, with the focus turning to miniaturization of its components. The UC Berkeley engineers are also developing a quieter, more powerful engine, and a faster, more intelligent controller, that will enable the exoskeleton to carry loads up to 120 pounds within the next six months. In addition, the researchers are studying what it takes to enable pilots to run and jump with the exoskeleton legs.

Check out a 1 megabyte jpeg picture of a human wearing a BLEEX exoskeleton and see more images at the Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton (BLEEX) project page.

The BLEEX brings to mind the powerloader exoskeleton that Sigourney Weaver as Ripley wore to battle the alien queen in the climactic fight scene in the 1986 move Aliens. As images here, here, and here demonstrate, its larger size and huge grappler hands made it look far more industrial and powerful than BLEEX. But a real life implementation of Ripley's industrial power loader would weigh too much and give its users too large a profile to be useful in most battlefield applications.

Share |      Randall Parker, 2004 March 06 01:04 PM  Cyborg Tech

Reason said at March 6, 2004 4:43 PM:

I think the argument for battlefield implementations of these sorts of things - once you get far enough along to focus on that rather than the much more useful carrying implementations ... war being 90% logistics and all that - is more on force multiplication in areas you can't take traditional light armored vehicles. Look at stuff like Heavy Gear for the end evolution of that line of thinking:

Do you recall that Russian invention involving the petrol-fueled piston-in-a-boot device that allow the user to take giant strides/leaps? I wonder how that would go if combined with this exoskeleton. (I so like the fact that I can type "russian diesel boot invention" into Google and have it actually do what I want it to!)

Founder, Longevity Meme

snake said at March 7, 2004 7:11 PM:

Very interesting and potentially important, but I can't help thinking when I see these,
"I've got the wrong trousers, Gromit! The wrong trousers!"

Scott said at August 16, 2004 5:56 PM:

Does anyone else think it's wierd that a bastion of left coast thinking produces a tools for soldiers? Talk about your cognitive dissonance.

Scott said at August 16, 2004 5:56 PM:

*a tool*


Guil Cornejo said at April 18, 2006 12:14 PM:

Congrats for the invention. May I ask a question? MAny people get lower back injuries from repetitive lifting and carrying loads over 90#. Additionally, they also get shoulder injuries from the cited motion. Can your device be used to lighthen the load on lumbar section to prevent low-back injuries? Can it be ergonomically fit to prevent these injuries? I thought I ask.

Thank you

Guil Cornejo

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