Scientists have tricked bone marrow into releasing extra adult stem cells into the bloodstream, a technique that they hope could one day be used to repair heart damage or mend a broken bone, in a new study published today in the journal Cell Stem Cell.
When a person has a disease or an injury, the bone marrow mobilises different types of stem cells to help repair and regenerate tissue. The new research, by researchers from Imperial College London, shows that it may be possible to boost the body's ability to repair itself and speed up repair, by using different new drug combinations to put the bone marrow into a state of 'red alert' and send specific kinds of stem cells into action.
In the new study, researchers tricked the bone marrow of healthy mice into releasing two types of adult stem cells – mesenchymal stem cells, which can turn into bone and cartilage and that can also suppress the immune system, and endothelial progenitor cells, which can make blood vessels and therefore have the potential to repair damage in the heart.
While the scientists haven't shown that pushing more stem cells into the bloodstream leads to more healing they have shown they can boost stem cell release by a factor of 100.
"We hope that by releasing extra stem cells, as we were able to do in mice in our new study, we could potentially call up extra numbers of whichever stem cells the body needs, in order to boost its ability to mend itself and accelerate the repair process. Further down the line, our work could lead to new treatments to fight various diseases and injuries which work by mobilising a person's own stem cells from within," added Dr Rankin.
The scientists reached their conclusions after treating healthy mice with one of two different 'growth factors' – proteins that occur naturally in the bone marrow – called VEGF and G-CSF. Following this treatment, the mice were given a new drug called Mozobil.
The researchers found that the bone marrow released around 100 times as many endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells into the bloodstream when the mice were treated with VEGF and Mozobil, compared with mice that received no treatment. Treating the mice with G-CSF and Mozobil mobilised the haematopoietic stem cells – this treatment is already used in bone marrow transplantation.
It isn't always going to be the case that just putting a large number of stem cells onto the scene of injury will lead to some or all needed repairs. Additional work might be necessary to implant signaling chemicals to direct stem cells to the right places and further to instruct them on which types of cells to convert into.
We are going to see stem cells become useful therapeutic tools for at least some problems in the next 10 years and for a lot more problems in the following 10 years.
|Share |||Randall Parker, 2009 January 08 10:33 PM Biotech Stem Cells|