Depression affects about 10% of the US adult population. How sad. But good news: The GLYX-13 causes anti-depression effects as fast and effectively as ketamine but without the major side effects of ketamine.
GLYX-13 and ketamine produced rapid acting (1 hour) and long-lasting (24 hour) antidepressant-like effects in the rats. Fluoxetine, an SSRI that typically takes from 2–4 weeks to show efficacy in humans, did not produce a rapid antidepressant effect in this study. As expected, the scrambled GLYX-13 showed no antidepressant-like effects at all. The researchers observed none of the aforementioned side effects of ketamine in the GLYX-13–treated rats.
This is great news for lab rats that work in oppressive, confined conditions. They can be happy and get more life satisfaction.
The drug is in phase 2 trials on humans.
Protein studies indicated an increase in the hippocampus of the NMDA receptor NR2B and a receptor for the chemical messenger glutamate called AMPA. Electrophysiology studies in this brain region showed that GLYX-13 and ketamine promoted long-lasting signal transmission in neurons, known as long-term potentiation/synaptic plasticity. This phenomenon is essential in learning and memory. The researchers propose how GLYX-13 works: GLYX-13 triggers NR2B receptor activation that leads to intracellular calcium influx and the expression of AMPA, which then is responsible for increased communication between neurons.
These results are consistent with data from a recent Phase 2 clinical trial, in which a single administration of GLYX-13 produced statistically significant reductions in depression scores in patients who had failed treatment with current antidepressants. The reductions were evident within 24 hours and persisted for an average of 7 days. After a single dose of GLYX-13, the drug’s antidepressant efficacy nearly doubled that seen with most conventional antidepressants after 4–6 weeks of dosing. GLYX-13 was well tolerated and it did not produce any of the schizophrenia-like effects associated with other NMDA receptor modulating agents.
The drug is the result of decades of research. The accumulated knowledge of neuroscience research is starting to pay off. It seems likely that in 10 years depression will be a very easily treated condition for most sufferers of depression.
|Share |||Randall Parker, 2013 June 04 09:27 PM|